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Plumbing (which comes from the Latin word plumbum, which means lead, as pipes were once made from lead) is the job of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for drinking water systems and getting rid of waste. A plumber is someone who puts or fixes in piping systems, plumbing fixtures and equipment for example water heaters. Many plumbers are construction workers. The plumbing industry is an important part of every developed economy because people need clean water and safe ways to move and store waste.[1]

Plumbing refers to a system of fixtures and pipes put in a building to move the and water get cleared of waste that is in water. Plumbing is different from water and sewage systems because plumbing system serves one building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Materials
3 Regulation
4 References
History[change | change source]

Roman lead pipe with a folded seam, at the Roman Baths in Bath, England
Until modern cities grew in the 19th century. plumbing was rare At about the same time, public health leaders began wanting better systems to get rid of waste. Before this, people got rid of waste by collecting it and dumping it onto the ground or into rivers. However, there were some plumbing pipes in the city settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C.[2] Plumbing was also used during the ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese civilizations as they built public baths and needed drinking water, and somewhere to drain waste. The Romans used pipe inscriptions to stop people from stealing water.

These systems didn't improve much over the years. There were almost no improvements from the time of the Roman aqueducts and sewers until the 19th century. Eventually open sewage ditches were got rid of by the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems and cesspools. Most large cities today send solid wastes through pipes to sewage treatment plants. Treatment separates water from waste and makes the water more pure before it goes into streams or other bodies of water. Most places stopped for drinking water after World War II because of the dangers of lead poisoning using lead. At this time, copper piping was started because it was safer than using lead pipes.[3]

Materials[change | change source]
Water systems in ancient times used gravity to move water. They used channels or pipes made of lead, clay, bamboo or stone. Today, water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are made of copper,[4] brass, plastic, or other nontoxic material. Drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, and lead. Lead isn't used in pipes today because it can be poisonous.[5][6][7]


Piping being placed for a sink

Plumber wrench for working on fittings and pipes
The 'straight' sections of plumbing systems are of tube or pipe. Where a tube is made through extrusion, a pipe is made by casting or welding. Pipe has thicker walls and might be threaded or welded, where tubes have thinner walls, and needs special joining techniques such as 'brazing', 'compression fitting', 'crimping', or for plastics, 'solvent welding'.

Along with the straight pipe or tubing, many fittings are required in plumbing systems, such as valves, elbows, tees, and unions.

Plumbing fixtures are designed. Some examples of fixtures include water closets (also known as toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, utility and kitchen sinks, drinking fountains, ice makers, humidifiers, air washers, fountains, and eye wash stations.
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